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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models evaluating the association between cannabis use for medical purposes and codeine use among the Canadian Population, Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (2017)

From: The association between cannabis and codeine use: a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Canada

  Cannabis users
(N=3338)
Codeine usea
(Yes vs No)
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted model
Cannabis for medical purposesb
  No Reference
  Yes 3.42 (2.04, 5.76)
Multivariable model
 Cannabis for medical purposesb
  No Reference
  Yes 2.96 (1.71, 5.10)
Sex
  Female Reference
  Male 0.56 (0.34, 0.97)
Age
  15–44 years 0.71 (0.39, 1.29)
  45+ years Reference
Geographic region
  Rural Reference
  Urban 0.73 (0.41, 1.33)
Education
  University and above Reference
  Trade/college 1.89 (0.85, 4.19)
  Secondary 1.75 (0.82, 3.75)
  Less than secondary 1.21 (0.48, 3.05)
Absence from workc
  Absent Reference
  Present 1.05 (0.60, 1.86)
Marital status
  No partner Reference
  Partner 0.58 (0.32, 1.03)
Smoking status
  Nonsmoker Reference
  Smoker 1.22 (0.71, 2.11)
Self-perceived general health
  Fair/poor Reference
  Good 1.32 (0.63, 2.78)
  Very good/excellent 1.08 (0.51, 2.31)
  1. Estimates are probability weighted using weights from Statistics Canada
  2. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. aUse of any codeine-containing products in the past 12 months
  4. bUse of cannabis-containing products in the past 12 months for medical purposes
  5. cDuring the week prior to the date survey was conducted