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Table 2 Description of included studies

From: Characteristics that influence purchase choice for cannabis products: a systematic review

Author, year Method (hypothetical/revealed)* Attributes Population
Non-medical legalization status
Sex (% female)
Mean age (SD)
Time period Location
Amlung, 2019 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity
289—adult cannabis users;
Immediately before cannabis legalization
31.7 (9.9)
November 2017 to February 2018 Hamilton, ON, Canada
Amlung, 2019 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity
724—adult cannabis users (> 21 years);
States where cannabis is legalized
34.13 (10.02)
September to December 2017 Alaska, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Maine, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, USA
Aston, 2015 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 99—frequent cannabis users (18–44 years); cannabis not legalized 37.4%
21.4 (4.4)
2010–2011 Rhode Island, USA
Aston, 2016 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 83—frequent cannabis users (18–44 years); cannabis not legalized 34.9%
21.6 (4.7)
2010–2011 USA
Cole, 2008 MPT (hypothetical) Quality elasticity 80—polydrug users 18–44 years; cannabis not legalized Polydrug users: 36.3%
21.0 (1.2)
Cannabis users: 36.3%
21.0 (1.2)
2006 England
Collins, 2014 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 59—young participants (18–25 years) who regularly used cannabis; cannabis not legalized 46%
21.64 (1.98)
Unknown Buffalo, USA
Goudie, 2007 MPT (hypothetical) Income elasticity
40—polysubstance users. 38—reported at least a single lifetime use of cannabis; cannabis not legalized Polysubstance users: 27.5%
23.8 (4.9
Cannabis users: unknown
2005 England
Hindocha, 2017 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 24—non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers (18–60 years); cannabis not legalized 50%
24.46 (3.96)
Unknown London, UK
Nisbet, 1972 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity, expenditure elasticity 926 UCLA students
(437 users of cannabis); cannabis not legalized
Unknown Unknown Los Angeles, California, USA
Patel, 2019 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 749—adults with cannabis use in the previous 6 months; states where cannabis is legalized 53.2%
37.7 (10.2)
September to December 2017 USA
Peters, 2017 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 82—frequent cannabis users, 18 years or older (use 20+ days in past month); unknown legalization status 54.9%
32.4 (8.8)
Unknown USA
Strickland, 2017 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 78—frequent cannabis users, who consumed at least once in the previous 2 weeks, and at least 50 lifetime uses; unknown legalization status 51.6%
30.2 (7.3)
Unknown USA
Strickland, 2019 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 83—non-medical prescription opioid users > 18 years of age; unknown legalization status 63.9%
34.0 (8.0)
Cannabis users: unknown
May to September 2018 USA
Teeters, 2019 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 132—college students who reported use on 4 or more days in past month; unknown legalization status 46.2%
19.94 (3.23)
2014–2016 USA
Vincent, 2017 MPT (hypothetical) Price elasticity 683—young adult (18–25 years) non-medicinal cannabis users; unknown legalization status 16%
21.2 (2.2)
Unknown USA
Aston, 2019 Qualitative interviews (revealed) Route of administration 25—medical cannabis registration card holders; cannabis not legalized 60%
47 (12)
2016 Rhode Island, USA
Ben Lakhdar, 2016 Secondary analysis of data from the French National Identification System for Drugs and Other Substances (SINTES) and TREND system (both surveys) (Revealed) Price elasticity, quantity discount 268 cannabis users (249 for the elasticity calculation); cannabis not legalized 23.1%
27 (7.234)
2005 Mainland France (Lyon, Marseille, Metz, Paris, Rennes, Toulouse)
Caulkins, 2006 Secondary analysis of survey data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (revealed) Price discounts National probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population (> 12 years of age).
8339 respondents reported using cannabis in the past 12 months; cannabis not legalized
Unavailable 2001 USA
Davis, 2016 Secondary analysis
Crowdsource platform (revealed)
Price elasticity 23,000 actual cannabis transactions where price, quantity, and quality are reported; mixed legalization status N/A Between September 2, 2010, and August 29, 2011 USA (excluding Alaska and Hawaii)
Desimone, 2003 Secondary analysis of data from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (revealed) Price elasticity 92,784 individuals aged 18 to 39
43,147 individuals aged 12–17; cannabis not legalized
Individuals aged 18–39: 50.9%
29.05 (6.28)
Individuals aged 12–17: 48.8%
14.49 (1.68)
1990–1997 USA
Halcoussis, 2017 Secondary analysis of crowdsourced data on prices ( (revealed) Price elasticity, quality 29,461 transactions; mixed legalization status N/A September 2010 through March 2012 USA
Hansen, 2017 Administrative data
Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board (revealed)
Tax reform (i.e., price) Cannabis legalized N/A   Washington, USA
Reed, 2020 Qualitative interviews (revealed) Price, source 60 individuals who consumed cannabis; cannabis legalized 64%
21.8 (2.53)
2014–2016 California, USA
Reinarman, 2009 Survey and Interviews in
Amsterdam and
San Francisco (revealed)
Source, price, potency, accessibility Experienced users (at least 25 occasions in their life); cannabis not legalized (California), Decriminalized (Amsterdam) Amsterdam: 41%
34.2 (standard deviation not reported)
San Francisco: 47%
37.1 (standard deviation not reported)
Amsterdam 1995/1996
San Francisco 1997
Amsterdam (216), San Francisco (266)
Riley, 2020 Cross-sectional survey (revealed) Price elasticity, quantity discount, quality 1961 cannabis consumers; cannabis not legalized 27.2%
Mean age not reported
August and September 2017 South Africa
Smart, 2017 Secondary analysis of administrative data from Washington State’s cannabis traceability system Price elasticity, potency on price, quantity discount A total of 44,482,176 million cannabis purchases, including 31,052,123 cannabis flower purchases; cannabis legalized N/A July 2014–September 2016 USA (Washington)
Wadsworth, 2019 Survey - International Cannabis Policy Study (ICPS) (revealed) Quantity discount, source 1227 Canadians aged 16–65 years who reported purchasing dried cannabis in the past 12 months; immediately before cannabis legalization Unweighted sample: 48.8%
Mean age not reported
Weighted sample: 39.8%
Mean age not reported
August–October 2018 Canada
Boehnke, 2019 Survey (revealed) Cannabinoid content, cannabis strain, potency, administration routes, dispensary/friend recommendation, smell, visual properties, described effects, name Medical cannabis patients (≥ 18 years) with chronic pain (1321)
715—medicinal only
606—used both non-medicinally and medicinally (dual); in states with cannabis legalization
781, 59%
49.8 (13.9)
January and August 2018 USA and Canada
Capler, 2017 Secondary analysis of survey data
Cannabis Access for Medical Purposes Study
Quality, safety, availability, efficiency, cost, feeling respected, product type 445 Adult medical cannabis users (215 accessed from dispensaries; 230 from other sources); cannabis legalized for medical purposes 33% (dispensary 32%; non-dispensary 34%)
39.3 (dispensary 45.5
Non-dispensary 36.3)
2011–2012 Canada
Chait, 1994 Choice blinded trials (two independent choice trial—with low (0.63% THC) and high (1.95% THC) potency cannabis) (revealed) Potency 12 volunteers judged to be healthy with no history of substance use disorder; cannabis not legalized 25%
23 (standard deviation not reported)
 Unknown Chicago, USA
Gilbert, 2018 Rating of 13 samples using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers (revealed) Aroma 61 adults 21 years of age or older (current, former and non-users)
Female: 46% (29)
Age: 28.2 (8.4); cannabis is legalized
28.2 (8.4)
Unknown  Colorado, USA
Goodman, 2019 An experimental choice task
Part of the online International Cannabis Policy Study (hypothetical)
Packaging, warnings Participants aged 16–65 from Canada (n = 9987) and US states with “legal” (n = 7376) and “illegal” (n = 9682); Canada pre-cannabis legalization, USA a mix of legal and illegal states 61.5%
44.5 (15.5)
August–October 2018 Canada and USA
Shi, 2019 Online cross-sectional survey with discrete choice experiment
Survey performed
THC concentration, CBD concentration, warning message, price (WTP) 2345 adults aged 21 and over (1186 past-year nonusers and 1159 past-year users); cannabis legalized in included states Past-year nonusers: 67.96%
Mean age and standard deviation not reported
Past-year users: 68.51%
Mean age and standard deviation not reported
October 2017 USA (California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington)
Shukla, 2003 Key informant interviews
Illegal market considerations, availability, cost 51—purposeful sampling of individuals who made choice about cannabis use; cannabis not legalized 47%
31.52 (standard deviation not reported)
 Unknown USA
Williams, 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy’s Household Surveys (NDSHS)
Price, price elasticity
Legal status
5468 observations from non-institutionalized population aged 14 years and older; cannabis not legalized (one region with decriminalized status) 54%
Mean age and standard deviation not reported
1988–1998 Australia
  1. MPT Marijuana Purchase Task; U/K unknown
  2. *Some studies collect data on preferences uncovered through posing hypothetical questions/examples (hypothetical). Other studies ask participants directly their preferences and actual choices (revealed)