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Table 2 List of traditional uses of Cannabis sativa as phytomedicine used by the folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh and potential therapeutic compounds

From: A narrative review of the ethnomedicinal usage of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus as traditional phytomedicine by folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh

Ailment (s) treated Part (s) used Mode of preparations and administration Reference Potential therapeutic compounds (from literature)
Sedative, paralysis, narcotic Leaf, root Not given Rahmatullah et al. 2010d Roots: friedelan-3-one, epifriedelanol, β-sitosterol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, methyl hexadecanoate, pentadecanoic acid, 10E-hexadecenoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and p-coumaroyltyramine (Elhendawy et al. 2019)
Triterpenoids (friedelin, epifriedelanol); alkaloids (cannabisativine, anhydrocannabisativine); carvone and dihydrocarvone; N-(p-hydroxy-β-phenylethyl)-p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamamide; sterols (sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) (Ryz et al. 2017)
Rheumatoid Arthritis Leaf, root Not given Rahmatullah et al. 2010e
Cancer, hypertension, antidote to poison, itch, rheumatoid arthritis. Leaf, root Not given Rahmatullah et al. 2010f
Bitter, increases bile secretion, hallucinogeni, sex stimulant, to induce sleep, to induce pleasant sensations, excessive menstruation, urination problems Leaf Not given Rahmatullah et al. 2010g
Fever Root Macerated roots of Cannabis sativa and leaves of Chromolaena odorata are combined and taken Rahmatullah et al. 2011 Leaves: cannabispirketal, α-cannabispiranol 4’-O-β-D-glucopyranose, cannabispirenone-A, cannabispirone, 9,10-dihydro-2,3,5,6-tetramethoxyphenanthrene-1,4-dione, 4-hydroxy-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethylnon-2-en-4-olide, Indole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, cannflavin A, 6-geranylapigenin, 6-isopentenyl apigenin, cannflavin B, 8-isopentenyl isorhamnetin, orientin, vitexin, 4′-methoxy orientin, and cytisoside (Guo et al., 2017).
Bloating, cough, mucus. Leaf Leaf juice is taken orally for all three ailments. Rahmatullah et al. 2009
Wound infections of cattle Leaf Not given Rashid et al. 2010
CNS depressant, gout, arthritic pain Leaf One teaspoon powder obtained from crushed and dried leaf is added to water and taken once orally. Mawla et al. 2012
Seeds’ oil: Cannabinoids (Cannabidiol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabiripsol, Cannabitriol, Cannabigerol, Cannabielsoin, Cannabinol, Cannabichromene, Cannabicitran)
β-caryophyllene, myrcene, β-sitosterol, methyl salicylate, fatty acids (linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic), campesterol, phytol, cycloartenol, and γ-tocopherol (Citti et al. 2019a; Leizer et al. 2000; Nabukenya et al. 2014)
Insomnia, coughs, low libido Leaf, seed Leaves and seeds are dried, powdered and made into balls of about 1/16 kg each. One ball is taken daily for coughs, mucus, as a narcotic and to induce sleep. The seeds are taken for sexual stimulation. Nawaz et al. 2009
Cancer All parts Not given Mollik et al., 2010
Insanity, tetanus, menstrual pain, tuberculosis, rheumatism, cancer chemotherapy, and cancer pain Root, seed, (a) Root is made into a paste with 25 black pepper and given twice daily for insanity and tetanus, also used for relieves pain of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and phthisis
(b) Seed oil is used in rheumatism, cancer chemotherapy and cancer pain.
Siddique et al. 2006
Poor digestion, hallucinogenic, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, induce pleasant sensations, excessive menstruation, urination problems. Leaf Paste from leaves which has
been heated
Walid et al. 2013
Schizophrenia like psychotic problems Leaf (a) Leaves are used to make oil then massage on the scalp until cured.
(b) If a patient is in severe condition, then the leaves are used to make vapor which is inhaled through the nose.
Ahmed and Azam 2014
(a) Dandruff
(b) Headache, asthma
Leaf, resin (a) Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain; juice removes dandruff
(b) The resin called Charas is used to prevent and cure headache and asthma.
Sultana and Rahman 2017
Soporific, abortifacient Leaf, Inflorescence Not given Kona and Rahman 2016
(a) Strangulated hernia and griping pains of dysentery
(b) Diarrhea, dyspepsia and bowel complaints.
Leaf, flower (a) The smoke of dried pistillate of flowering tops which are coated with resinous exudation is passed through the rectum for relief from strangulated hernia and griping pains of dysentery
(b) The preparation made specially from dried leaves and flowers known as bhang, siddhi or hashis is given to check diarrhea, dyspepsia and bowel complaints
Kadir et al., 2013
Erectile dysfunction Root Root juice is orally taken Hasan et al. 2015a
To expedite delivery Leaf Leaves are fried in ghee and powdered and then orally taken with warm water. Mahnoor et al., 2015