Skip to main content

Table 2 List of traditional uses of Cannabis sativa as phytomedicine used by the folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh and potential therapeutic compounds

From: A narrative review of the ethnomedicinal usage of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus as traditional phytomedicine by folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh

Ailment (s) treated

Part (s) used

Mode of preparations and administration


Potential therapeutic compounds (from literature)

Sedative, paralysis, narcotic

Leaf, root

Not given

Rahmatullah et al. 2010d

Roots: friedelan-3-one, epifriedelanol, β-sitosterol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, methyl hexadecanoate, pentadecanoic acid, 10E-hexadecenoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and p-coumaroyltyramine (Elhendawy et al. 2019)

Triterpenoids (friedelin, epifriedelanol); alkaloids (cannabisativine, anhydrocannabisativine); carvone and dihydrocarvone; N-(p-hydroxy-β-phenylethyl)-p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamamide; sterols (sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) (Ryz et al. 2017)

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Leaf, root

Not given

Rahmatullah et al. 2010e

Cancer, hypertension, antidote to poison, itch, rheumatoid arthritis.

Leaf, root

Not given

Rahmatullah et al. 2010f

Bitter, increases bile secretion, hallucinogeni, sex stimulant, to induce sleep, to induce pleasant sensations, excessive menstruation, urination problems


Not given

Rahmatullah et al. 2010g



Macerated roots of Cannabis sativa and leaves of Chromolaena odorata are combined and taken

Rahmatullah et al. 2011

Leaves: cannabispirketal, α-cannabispiranol 4’-O-β-D-glucopyranose, cannabispirenone-A, cannabispirone, 9,10-dihydro-2,3,5,6-tetramethoxyphenanthrene-1,4-dione, 4-hydroxy-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethylnon-2-en-4-olide, Indole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, cannflavin A, 6-geranylapigenin, 6-isopentenyl apigenin, cannflavin B, 8-isopentenyl isorhamnetin, orientin, vitexin, 4′-methoxy orientin, and cytisoside (Guo et al., 2017).

Bloating, cough, mucus.


Leaf juice is taken orally for all three ailments.

Rahmatullah et al. 2009

Wound infections of cattle


Not given

Rashid et al. 2010

CNS depressant, gout, arthritic pain


One teaspoon powder obtained from crushed and dried leaf is added to water and taken once orally.

Mawla et al. 2012

Seeds’ oil: Cannabinoids (Cannabidiol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabiripsol, Cannabitriol, Cannabigerol, Cannabielsoin, Cannabinol, Cannabichromene, Cannabicitran)

β-caryophyllene, myrcene, β-sitosterol, methyl salicylate, fatty acids (linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic), campesterol, phytol, cycloartenol, and γ-tocopherol (Citti et al. 2019a; Leizer et al. 2000; Nabukenya et al. 2014)

Insomnia, coughs, low libido

Leaf, seed

Leaves and seeds are dried, powdered and made into balls of about 1/16 kg each. One ball is taken daily for coughs, mucus, as a narcotic and to induce sleep. The seeds are taken for sexual stimulation.

Nawaz et al. 2009


All parts

Not given

Mollik et al., 2010

Insanity, tetanus, menstrual pain, tuberculosis, rheumatism, cancer chemotherapy, and cancer pain

Root, seed,

(a) Root is made into a paste with 25 black pepper and given twice daily for insanity and tetanus, also used for relieves pain of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and phthisis

(b) Seed oil is used in rheumatism, cancer chemotherapy and cancer pain.

Siddique et al. 2006

Poor digestion, hallucinogenic, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, induce pleasant sensations, excessive menstruation, urination problems.


Paste from leaves which has

been heated

Walid et al. 2013

Schizophrenia like psychotic problems


(a) Leaves are used to make oil then massage on the scalp until cured.

(b) If a patient is in severe condition, then the leaves are used to make vapor which is inhaled through the nose.

Ahmed and Azam 2014

(a) Dandruff

(b) Headache, asthma

Leaf, resin

(a) Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain; juice removes dandruff

(b) The resin called Charas is used to prevent and cure headache and asthma.

Sultana and Rahman 2017

Soporific, abortifacient

Leaf, Inflorescence

Not given

Kona and Rahman 2016

(a) Strangulated hernia and griping pains of dysentery

(b) Diarrhea, dyspepsia and bowel complaints.

Leaf, flower

(a) The smoke of dried pistillate of flowering tops which are coated with resinous exudation is passed through the rectum for relief from strangulated hernia and griping pains of dysentery

(b) The preparation made specially from dried leaves and flowers known as bhang, siddhi or hashis is given to check diarrhea, dyspepsia and bowel complaints

Kadir et al., 2013

Erectile dysfunction


Root juice is orally taken

Hasan et al. 2015a

To expedite delivery


Leaves are fried in ghee and powdered and then orally taken with warm water.

Mahnoor et al., 2015